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Yield The stress at which a material begins to deform plastically. Prior to the yield point the material will deform elastically and will return to its original shape when the applied stress is removed. Once the yield point is passed, some fraction of the deformation will be permanent and non-reversible.
Tensile The maximum stress that a material can withstand while being stretched or pulled before failing or breaking. Tensile strength is not the same as compressive strength and the values can be quite different. Some material will break sharply, without plastic deformation (Yield), in what is called a brittle failure. Others, which are more ductile, including most metals, will experience some plastic deformation and possibly necking before fracture.
Elongation A test to measure the ductility of steel. When a material is tested for tensile strength it elongates a certain amount before fracture takes place. The two pieces are placed together and the amount of extension is measured against marks made before starting the test and is expressed as a percentage of the original gauge length.
Reduction of Area The percentage difference between the original cross-sectional area of the Tensile specimen and the minimum cross-sectional area after the specimen breaks.
Charpy The Charpy impact test, also known as the Charpy V-notch test, is a standardized high strain-rate test which determines the amount of energy absorbed by a material during fracture. This absorbed energy is a measure of a given material's notch toughness and acts as a tool to study temperature-dependent ductile-brittle transition.
Brinell Hardness The Brinell hardness test for steel, involves impressing a ball 10 mm diameter, of tungsten carbide, with a loading of 3000 kilograms into the steel surface. The hardness of the steel is then determined by measurement of the indentation. For steels with a hardness over 500 BHN the Vickers test is more reliable. Abbreviation:HBW
Rockwell Hardness A method for testing the hardness of metals by determining the depth of penetration of a steel ball or a diamond sphero-conical indentor. The value is read from a dial and is an arbitrary number related to the depth of penetration. For testing hard steels, a sphero-conical diamond is used with a 150 kg load, the result is read from the black scale on the dial and is prefixed with the letter C. A hardened tool steel would typically give a reading of 62Rc. For softer metals Scale B is used with a 1/16" diameter steel ball and a standard load of 100 kgs.
Vickers Hardness The Vickers test can be used for all metals and has one of the widest scales among hardness tests. The unit of hardness given by the test is known as the Vickers Pyramid Number (HV) or Diamond Pyramid Hardness (DPH). The hardness number can be converted into units of pascals, but should not be confused with a pressure, which also has units of pascals. The hardness number is determined by the load over the surface area of the indentation and not the area normal to the force, and is therefore not a pressure.
Chemical Analysis Measures the various elements in percentages that make up the material
Ultrasonic Testing A nondestructive method of inspection fo locating defects in steel. When acoustic energy in the ultrasonic range is passed through steel, the sound waves tend to travel in straight lines, rather than diffusing in all directions as they do in the audible range. If there is a defect in the path of the beam it will cause a reflection of some of the energy, depleting the energy transmitted. This casts an acoustic shadow which can be monitored by a detector placed opposite the transducer or energy source. If the acoustic energy is introduced as a very short burst, then the reflected energy coming back to the originating transducer can also be used to show the size and depth of the defect. Ultrasonic techniques can be used to detect deeply located defects or those contained in the surface layer. Skill and experience are required in interpreting the results portrayed on the cathode ray tube.
Magnetic Particle Testing A nondestructive method of inspection for determining the existence and extent of possible defects in ferromagnetic materials. Finely divided magnetic particles, applied to the magnetized part, are attracted to and outline the pattern of any magnetic-leakage fields created by discontinuities. This test can be performed utilizing the wet or dry method.
Liquid Penetrant Testing A nondestructive method of inspection for detecting surface porosity or cracks in metal. The part to be inspected is cleaned and coated with a dye which penetrates any flaws that may be present. The surface is wiped clean and coated with a white powder. The powder absorbs the dye held in the defects indicating their location.
Microstructure The structure that is observed when a polished and etched specimen of metal is viewed in an optical microscope at magnifications in range of approximately x25 to x1500.

Heat Treating

Normalizing A treatment consisting of heating uniformly to temperature at least 100ºF above the critical range and cooling in still air at room temperature. The treatment produces a recrystallization and refinement of the grain structure and gives uniformity in hardness and structure to the product.
Annealing A treatment consisting of heating uniformly to a temperature, within or above the critical range and cooling at a controlled rate to a temperature under the critical range. This treatment is used to produce a definite microstructure, usually one designed for best machinability, and /or to remove stresses, induce softness, and alter ductility, toughness or other mechanical properties. When applied to nonferrous alloys, the term "annealing", without qualification, implies full anneal. When applied to nonferrous alloys, the term annealing implies a heat treatment designed to soften a cold worked structure by recrystallization or subsequent grain growth or to soften an aged- hardened alloy by causing a nearly complete precipitation of the second phase in relatively coarse form. Any process of annealing will usually reduce stress, but if the treatment is applied for the sole purpose of such relief, it should be designated stress relieving.
Austenitizing Forming austenite by heating uniformly to temperature at least 100ºF above the critical range and cooling in still air at room temperature. The treatment produces a recrystalization and refinement of the grain structure and gives uniformity in hardness and structure to the product.
Quenching a treatment consisting of heating uniformly to a predetermined temperature and cooling rapidly in air or liquid medium to produce a desired crystalline structure.
Tempering A treatment consisting of heating uniformly to some predetermined temperature under the critical range, holding at that temperature a designated period of time and cooling in air or liquid. This treatment is used to produce one or more of the following end results: To soften material for subsequent machining or cold work, To improve ductility and relieve stress resulting from prior treatment or cold working, To produce the desired mechanical properties or structure in the second step of a double treatment.
Stress Relieve Temper A thermal treatment to restore elastic properties and to minimize distortion on subsequent machining or hardening operations. This treatment is usually applied to material that has been heat treated (quenched and tempered). Normal practice would be to heat to a temperature of 100ºF lower than the tempering temperatures used to establish mechanical properties and hardness. Ordinarily, no straightening is performed after stress relieve temper.
Age Hardening A change in properties of certain metals and alloys that occurs at ambient or moderately elevated temperatures after hot working, cold working, or heat treating. The change in properties is often, but not always, due to a phase change (precipitation), but never involves a change in chemical composition of the metal or alloy.
Induction Hardening A surface- hardening process in which only the surface layer of a suitable ferrous workpiece is heated by electromagnetic induction to above the upper critical temperature and immediately quenched.
Carburizing and Hardening A treatment consisting of dissolving carbon into the surface of steel by heating to above the transformation range in the presence of carburizing compounds. A form of case hardening that produces a carbon gradient extending inward from the surface, enabling the surface layer to be hardened either by quenching directly from the carburizing temperature or by cooling to room temperature, then re- austenitizing and quenching.
Nitrocarburizing Any of several processes in which both nitrogen and carbon are absorbed into the surface layers of a ferrous material at temperatures below the lower critical temperature and, by diffusion, create a concentration gradient. Nitrocarburizing is done mainly to provide an antiscuffing surface layer and to improve fatigue resistance.
Gas Nitriding A treatment consisting of introducing nitrogen into the surface layer of solid ferrous alloys by holding at suitable temperature in contact with ammonia or molten cyanide of appropriate composition to produce extremely hard "skins".
Carbonitriding A case hardening process in which a suitable ferrous material is heated above the lower transformation temperature in a gaseous atmosphere of such composition as to cause simultaneous absorption of carbon and nitrogen by the surface and, by diffusion, create a concentration gradient. The process is completed by cooling at a rate that produces the desired properties in the workpiece.


Turning Machining material off the outside diameter of the material. Maximum Capacities Up to 60" in diameter by 324" in length and 40,000 pounds per piece.
Trepanning A type of machining performed on solid material whereas a hole is bored through the part. The end product is normally a heavy wall tube or hollow bar. Trepanning is a "coring" operation as opposed to other methods of drilling a hole. The cutting toll cuts out a portion of the hole in chips and the inner portion of the hole remains solid. This solid portion is extracted after the hole is completed. Maximum Capacities From a ¾" hole up to and 11" hole, and with lengths of 10" up to 40'
Boring A machining process used on tubing, rolled, pierced, extruded or trepanned, to enlarge the size of an existing hole. Maximum Capacities Up to a 25½" hole with weight capacity of 34,000 pounds per piece
Honing A process using abrasive stones and emery cloth to achieve precise hole diameters and improved finishes. This process is not used to remove large amounts of material. Other machining processes would precede honing when larger amounts of material need to be removed. Maximum Capacities ID size range of 1½" up to 20" with maximum weight capacity per piece of 34,000.
Gundrilling This type of machining is used when smaller holes (0.125" 1.250" diameters) are required and a closer hole diameter tolerance is preferred or required. It is the slowest of the drilling operations and the hole drift is typically greater per inch of length drilled. Maximum Capacities ID size range of .062" up to 1½" with lengths of 10" up to 100" long
Off Center Drilling A machining process where the hole is drilled off center and not down the middle of the bar. Maximum Capacities ID size range of .062" up to 1½" with lengths of 10" up to 100" long
Pull Bore a machining process used on tubing, rolled, pierced, extruded or trepanned, to enlarge the size of an existing hole. This process can be used to maintain the existing outside diameter (OD) to inside diameter (ID) concentricity or used to straighten the hole for drifting without regard for the wall variance.
Pack Bore A machining process used ot improve the straightness of the hole. This process is applicable when the hole must drift with a drift gauge and/or requires turning with a close wall concentricity. Trepanning only will not always produce a hole straight enough to facilitate these requirements.
Skive/Reaming This machining process is used to economically enlarge the ID of tubing. The optimum amount of material removal is between 0.090" to 0.250" total, although larger amount to 0.500" can be removed.
Roller Burnish Smoothing the surfaces of an ID through frictional contact between a harden metal roller and the ID of a tube or pipe.
Kelly/Spiral Milling A machining process where either flat or grooved sides are machined onto the OD of the material.
Rough Machining A machining process done without regard to finish, usually to be followed by a subsequent operation.


Type Purpose Advantage / Disadvantage
Saw Cutting Cut to Length Precise up to +/-.125"
Flame Cutting Cut to Length, Rough Shape Cutting Alters mechanical properties and not very accurate
Plasma Cutting Rough Shape Cutting Accurate within .250" but alters mechanical properties
Laser Jet Cutting Precision Shape Cutting Precise cutting with a tolerance of +/-.010", does not alter mechanical properties

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